Summary and Info
The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This sixth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on responses of molecules to ultrashort intense laser pulses, generation and characterization of attosecond pulses and high-order harmonics, and filamentation and laser-plasma interaction Preface. Acknowledgments. Disclaimer. List of Acronyms. 1 Introduction. 1.1 A Short History of Optically Stimulated Luminescence. 1.2 Brief Description of Successful Applications. 1.2.1 Personal. 1.2.2 Space. 1.2.3 Medical. 1.2.4 Security. 1.3 The Future. 2 Theory and Practical Aspects. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Basic Aspects of the OSL Phenomenon. 2.2.1 Energy Levels in Perfect Crystals. 2.2.2 Defects in the Crystal. 2.2.3 Excitation of the Crystal by Ionizing Radiation. 2.2.4 Trapping and Recombination at Defect Levels. 2.2.5 Thermal Stimulation of Trapped Charges. 2.2.6 Optical Stimulation of Trapped Charges. 2.2.7 The Luminescence Process. 2.2.8 Rate Equations for OSL and TL Processes. 2.2.9 Temperature Dependence of the OSL Signal. 2.2.10 Other OSL Models. 2.3 OSL Readout. 2.3.1 Basic Elements of an OSL Reader. 2.3.2 Stimulation Modalities. 2.4 Instrumentation. 2.4.1 Light Sources. 2.4.2 Light Detectors. 2.4.3 Optical Filters. 2.4.4 Light Collection. 2.4.5 Sample Heaters. 2.5 Available OSL Readers. 2.5.1 Experimental Arrangements. 2.5.2 Automated Research Readers. 2.5.3 Commercial Dosimetry Readers. 2.5.4 Optical Fiber Systems. 2.5.5 Imaging Systems. 2.5.6 Portable OSL Readers. 2.6 Complementary Techniques. 2.6.1 OSL Emission and Stimulation Spectrum. 2.6.2 Lifetime and Time-Resolved OSL Measurements. 2.6.3 Correlations Between OSL and TL. 2.6.4 Other Phenomena. 2.7 Overview of OSL Materials. 2.7.1 Artificial Materials. 2.7.2 Natural Materials. 2.7.3 Electronic Components. 2.7.4 Other OSL Materials and Material Needs. 3 Personal Dosimetry. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Quantities of Interest. 3.2.1 Absorbed Dose and Other Physical Quantities. 3.2.2 Protection Quantities. 3.2.3 Operational Quantities. 3.3 Dosimetry Considerations. 3.3.1 Definitions. 3.3.2 Dose Calculation Algorithm. 3.3.3 Reference Calibration Fields for Personal and Area Dosimeters. 3.3.4 Uncertainty Analysis and Expression of Uncertainty. 3.4 Detectors. 3.4.1 General Characteristics. 3.4.2 Al 2 O 3 :C Detectors. 3.4.3 BeO Detectors. 3.5 Dosimetry Systems. 3.5.1 Luxel+ Dosimetry System. 3.5.2 InLight Dosimetry System. 3.6 Neutron-Sensitive OSL Detectors. 3.6.1 Development of Neutron-Sensitive OSL Detectors. 3.6.2 Properties of OSLN Detectors. 3.6.3 Ionization Density Effects. 4 Space Dosimetry. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Space Radiation Environment. 4.2.1 Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). 4.2.2 Earth's Radiation Belts (ERB). 4.2.3 Solar Particle Events (SPEs). 4.2.4 Secondary Radiation. 4.3 Quantities of Interest. 4.3.1 Absorbed Dose, D . 4.3.2 Dose Equivalent, H . 4.3.3 Equivalent Dose, HT . 4.3.4 Effective Dose, E . 4.3.5 Gray-Equivalent, GT . 4.4 Health Risk. 4.5 Evaluation of Dose in Space Radiation Fields Using OSLDs (and TLDs). 4.5.1 The Calibration Problem for Space Radiation Fields. 4.5.2 Thermoluminescence, TL. 4.5.3 Optically Stimulated Luminescence, OSL. 4.5.4 OSL Response in Mixed Fields. 4.6 Applications. 4.6.1 Use of OSLDs (and TLDs) in Space-Radiation Fields. 4.6.2 Example Applications. 4.7 Future Directions. 5 Medical Dosimetry. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Radiation Fields in Medical Dosimetry. 5.2.1 Diagnostic Radiology. 5.2.2 Radiation Therapy and Radiosurgery. 5.2.3 Proton and Heavy-Ion Therapy. 5.3 Practical OSL Aspects Applied to Medical Dosimetry. 5.3.1 A Proposed Formalism. 5.3.2 Calibration and Readout Protocols. 5.3.3 A Checklist for Reporting OSL Results. 5.4 Optical-Fiber OSL Systems for Real-time Dosimetry. 5.4.1 Basic Concept. 5.4.2 Optical-Fiber OSL System Designs and Materials. 5.4.3 Readout Approaches. 5.5 Properties of Al2O3:C OSL Detectors for Medical Applications. 5.5.1 Influence Factors and Correction Factors. 5.5.2 Correction Factors for Beam Quality. 5.6 Clinical Applications. 5.6.1 Quality Assurance in External Beam Radiation Therapy. 5.6.2 Brachytherapy. 5.6.3 Measurement of Dose Profiles in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). 5.6.4 Proton Therapy. 5.6.5 Fluoroscopy (Patient and Staff Dosimetry). 5.6.6 Mammography. 5.6.7 Out-of-field Dose Assessment in Radiotherapy. 5.6.8 Dose Mapping. 5.6.9 Final Remarks on Clinical Applications. 6 Other Applications and Concepts. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Retrospective and Accident Dosimetry. 6.2.1 Basic Considerations. 6.2.2 Methodological Aspects. 6.2.3 Building Materials. 6.2.4 Household Materials. 6.2.5 Electronic Components. 6.2.6 Dental Enamel and Dental Ceramics. 6.3 Environmental Monitoring. 6.4 UV Dosimetry. 6.5 Integrated Sensors. 6.6 Passive/Active Devices. 6.7 Other Potential Security Applications. References. Index
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