Summary and Info
Integrated circuit (IC) reliability is of increasing concern in present-day IC technology where the interconnect failures significantly increases the failure rate for ICs with decreasing interconnect dimension and increasing number of interconnect levels. Electromigration (EM) of interconnects has now become the dominant failure mechanism that determines the circuit reliability. This brief addresses the readers to the necessity of 3D real circuit modelling in order to evaluate the EM of interconnect system in ICs, and how they can create such models for their own applications. A 3-dimensional (3D) electro-thermo-structural model as opposed to the conventional current density based 2-dimensional (2D) models is presented at circuit-layout level.Table of ContentsCoverElectromigration Modeling at Circuit Layout LevelISBN 9789814451208 ISBN 9789814451215PrefaceContentsSymbolsChapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview of Electromigration 1.2 Modeling of Electromigration 1.3 Organization of the Book 1.4 SummaryChapter 2 3D Circuit Model Construction and Simulation 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Layout Extraction and 3D Model Construction 2.3 Transient Electro-Thermo-Structural Simulations and Atomic Flux Divergence Computation 2.3.1 Transient Thermal-Electric Analysis o 22.214.171.124 Boundary Conditions o 126.96.36.199 Electrical Loads o 188.8.131.52 Application of the Electrical Loads 2.3.2 Transient Structural-Thermal Analysis o 184.108.40.206 Boundary Conditions o 220.127.116.11 Thermal Loads 2.3.3 Application of Submodeling 2.3.4 Computation of Atomic Flux Divergences 2.4 Simulation Results and Discussions 2.4.1 Current Density and Temperature Distributions 2.4.2 Transient Temperature Variation During Circuit Operation 2.4.3 Effect of the Substrate Dimension on the Circuit Temperature 2.4.4 Transient Thermo-Mechanical Stress Variation During Circuit Operation 2.4.5 Distributions of the Atomic Flux Divergences 2.5 Effects of Barrier Thickness and Low-j Dielectric on Circuit EM Reliability 2.6 SummaryChapter 3 Comparison of EM Performances in Circuit and Test Structures 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Model Construction and Simulation Setup 3.3 Distributions of Atomic Flux Divergences Under Different Operation Conditions 3.4 Effects of Interconnect Structures on Circuit EM Reliability 3.5 Effects of Transistor Finger Number on Circuit EM Reliability 3.6 SummaryChapter 4 Interconnect EM Reliability Modeling at Circuit Layout Level 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Model Construction and Simulation Setup 4.3 Distributions of Atomic Flux Divergences 4.3.1 Total AFD Distribution of the Full Model 4.3.2 Total AFD Distribution of the Sub-Model 4.4 Effects of Layout and Process Parameters on Circuit EM Reliability 4.4.1 Line Width and Degree of Turning 4.4.2 Transistor Orientation 4.4.3 Inter-Transistor Distance 4.4.4 Stress-Free Temperature of the Metallization 4.5 SummaryChapter 5 Concluding Remarks 5.1 Conclusions 5.2 Recommendations for Future Work
More About the Author
Chen Ming-tang (Chinese: 陳明堂; pinyin: Chén Míngtáng) is a politician in the Republic of China. He has served as the Administrative Deputy Minister of Justice in the Executive Yuan since 11 March 2013. In September 2013, he briefly became the acting Minister of Justice after incumbent Minister Tseng Yung-fu's sudden resignation.
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