Summary and Info
In this study, Raymond Zammuto has cast the concept of organizational effectiveness within the framework of societal evolution. He thus takes into account evolving needs, expectations, and environmental constraints and examines the continual process of becoming, rather than being, effective. The evaluative and managerial implications of this evolutionary model are brought out in two case studies: federally funded “physician extender” training programs, and the U.S. automotive industry during the 1970s. Zammuto directs special attention to the strategic responses of the American automotive companies to changes taking place during these critical years. He describes and discusses the effectiveness of “niche expanding” activities that enhance the likelihood of long-term organizational survival.