Summary and Info
A rigorous Bayesian analysis is presented that unifies protein sequence-structure alignment and recognition. Given a sequence, explicit formulae are derived to select (1) its globally most probable core structure from a structure library; (2) its globally most probable alignment to a given core structure; (3) its most probable joint core structure and alignment chosen globally across the entire library; and (4) its most probable individual segments, secondary structure, and super-secondary structures across the entire library. The computations involved are NP-hard in the general case (3D-3D). Fast exact recursions for the restricted sequence singleton-only (1D-3D) case are given. Conclusions include: (a) the most probable joint core structure and alignment is not necessarily the most probable alignment of the most probable core structure, but rather maximizes the product of core and alignment probabilities; (b) use of a sequence-independent linear or affine gap penalty may result in the highest-probability threading not having the lowest score; (c) selecting the most probable core structure from the library (core structure selection or fold recognition only) involves comparing probabilities summed over all possible alignments of the sequence to the core, and not comparing individual optimal (or near-optimal) sequence-structure alignments; and (d) assuming uninformative priors, core structure selection is equivalent to comparing the ratio of two global means.