Summary and Info
What impact has globalisation had on transport? And what have been the consequences for the environment? This book aims to answer these questions and more. It looks in detail at how globalisation has affected activity levels in maritime shipping, aviation, and road and rail freight, and assesses the impact that changes in activity levels have had on the environment. The book also discusses policy instruments that can be used to address negative environmental impacts, both from an economic perspective and from the point of view of international law. Related reading Environmental Outlook to 2030 (2008) The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global Action beyond 2012 (2009) Table of Content : Acronyms Executive Summary Chapter 1. Introduction and Main Findings Chapter 2. Globalisations Direct and Indirect Effects on the Environment -Introduction -Growth of Trade and FDI -Early Research -Indirect Effects -Composition Effect -Global Net Composition Effect -The Technique Effect -Scale Effect -Globalisation and the Environment - Direct Effects -Conclusions Chapter 3. International Maritime Shipping - The Impact of Globalisation on Activity Levels -Introduction -Global Economic Role of Maritime Shipping -Maritime Transformations Responding to Globalisation -Maritime Shipping Activity -Future Developments -Conclusions Chapter 4. International Air Transport - The Impact of Globalisation on Activity Levels -Introduction -Globalisation and Internationalisation -The Basic Features of International Air Transport -Effect of Globalisation on Airline Markets -Institutional Challenges in Airline Regulation -Technological Developments -The Shifting Situation -Conclusions Chapter 5. International Road and Rail Freight Transport - The Impact of Globalisation on Activity Levels -Introduction -Recent Trends in International Trade Activity -International Trade and Transport: Policy and Economics -Other Considerations in International Trade of Physical Goods -Recent Trends in International Freight Transport by Road and Rail -Factors Influencing Recent Trends in International Road Freight Transport -Factors Influencing Recent Trends in Rail Freight Transport -Future Perspectives -Conclusions Chapter 6. International Maritime Shipping - Environmental Impacts of Increased Activity Levels -Introduction -Modelling of Air Emissions from Shipping -Geographically Resolved Emission Inventory -Atmospheric Impacts -Other Environmental Impacts -Conclusions Chapter 7. International Air Transport - Environmental Impacts of Increased Activity Levels -Introduction -Aviation Growth and the Environment -Hub-and-Spoke Networks -Effect of Aviation on House Prices -Conclusions Chapter 8. International Road and Rail Freight Transport - Environmental Impacts of Increased Activity Levels -Introduction -Trends in Environmental Impacts from Transport -Developments in Emission Factors of Road and Rail Vehicles -Perspectives for Improving Environmental Peformance of Freight Transport -Conclusions Chapter 9. Policy Instruments to Limit Negative Environmental Impacts - An Economic Perspective -Introduction -The Problem of Climate Change and Current Responses -Transport and CO2 Emissions: Where Demand Would Like to Go -Road Transport -Maritime Transport -Aviation -Conclusions Chapter 10. Policy Instruments to Limit Negative Environmental Impacts - International Law -International Law -International Air Transport -International Space Transport -International Maritime Transport -International
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1960 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
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