Summary and Info
Past research indicates that people in some Asian cultures (e.g., Japan) often explicitly evaluate themselves negatively while implicitly maintaining positive self-evaluations. Two studies provided evidence for the hypothesis that this pattern of explicit and implicit self-evaluations is quite common even outside of Asia, as long as the evaluations are assessed in the context of close, interdependent social relations. Thus, Study 1 applied a modified version of Implicit Association Test to both Japanese and Americans, and showed that the above pattern occurs in both cultures if the self is evaluated vis-à-vis one’s actual friend. Further, Study 2 indicated that when placed in a context that has neither actual nor presumed emotional interdependence, both Japanese and Americans manifest positive self-evaluations at both explicit and implicit levels. Implications for cultural crafting of the self are discussed.
More About the Author
Kitayama (北山村, Kitayama-mura) is an exclave village that belongs to Higashimuro District, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, but is located on the border between Mie and Nara Prefectures.
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