Summary and Info
The lexical data reported in this Chuj-English dictionary were gathered during mydissertation field work in 1964-65. My first exposure to the Chuj language was in 1962, when Iwent to Huehuetenango with Norman A. McQuown and Brent Berlin to gather data on thelanguages of the Cuchumatanes (Berlin et al. 1969). At the time I was a graduate student at theUniversity of Texas, employed as a research assistant on the University of Chicago's ChiapasStudy Projects, directed by McQuown (McQuown and Pitt-Rivers 1970). Working through theMaryknoll priests who were then the Catholic clergy in the indigenous areas of Huehuetenangoand elsewhere in Guatemala, we recorded material, usually in the form of 100-word Swadeshlists (for glottochronology), from several languages. The sample included two speakers of theChuj variety of San Mateo Ixtatán (including the man who was later to become my majorinformant).In the Spring of 1962, as field work for the project wound down, I returned to Austin tofinish drafting my Master's thesis, and then went on to Chicago to begin graduate studies inAnthropology at the University of Chicago, with McQuown as my major professor. I continuedto work on Chiapas project materials in McQuown's archives, and in 1963 he assigned me theChuj language as the topic of my upcoming doctoral dissertation. Over the next academic year Itranscribed and analyzed the Chuj materials we had collected and prepared preliminary analysesof the phonology and morphology of the language.At the end of the Summer of 1964, with support from a National Defense Education ActForeign Language Fellowship, I went to Huehuetenango to begin field work on Chuj. By the endof August I had contracted an informant (Francisco Santizo Andrés) and rented a house inHuehuetenango, and we began work in earnest. From then until September of 1965 we workedan eight-hour day, six days a week, with occasional breaks when Francisco would go home and Iwould go to San Cristóbal de Las Casas, where Berlin and other anthropologists and linguistswere working on their own projects.We began by reviewing my preliminary analyses and correcting my errors oftranscription, as well as my phonemic analysis. At the same time Francisco learned to transcribeChuj in the technical orthography that we used at the time (using ¢ for the alveolar affricate, cwith hachek for the alveopalatal affricate, x for the velar fricative, etc.). Over time I elicitedTerry Kaufman's Mayan Vocabulary Survey list (a more or less 1400-item questionnairecovering basic vocabulary for Mesoamerican languages), and a Monosyllable Dictionary. Thelatter, apparently designed by Kaufman for the Chicago projects, took advantage of the CVCshape of most Mayan roots, and involved generating the list of possible CVC combinations andattempting to elicit vocabulary based on each. One advantage of this technique is that it elicitsvocabulary that would otherwise not occur to either the informant or the investigator, includingonomatopoetic forms as well as rarely heard lexical iterms. We also began to record narratives.Francisco would dictate a text to the tape recorder, operated by me, and then transcribe the tape(see Hopkins 1980b). I would go over the transcriptions and ask questions about the grammarand lexicon. All the lexical material gathered by these techniques was put on 3 x 5 slips and filedin the lexical file that is the basis for the present dictionary.In February of 1965, the botanist Dennis E. Breedlove, who was working in Chiapas withBrent Berlin on Tzeltal ethnobotany (see Berlin, Breedlove and Raven 1974, Breedlove 1981),came to Huehuetenango to collect plants in the Cuchumatanes, including especially the Chujspeakingregion, where there was extensive cloud forest. We collected for two days near SanJuan Ixcoy and the Captzin rocks, and then went on to San Mateo Ixtatán for four more days.Francisco and Dennis collected the specimens and Dennis recorded the botanical information,including the locality, altitude, etc. and remarks on the plants. Francisco and I recorded the Chujnames of the plants and their ethnobotanical classification (in terms of the categories 'anh, te',ch'anh, and 'ixim). According to my field notes we collected 1328 specimens in that field session(Br 8465-9793). These data went into my lexical slip files, and the results of this and othercollecting trips were later published (Breedlove and Hopkins 1970-71). The botanical IDs fromthat publication are incorporated in this dictionary.In May of 1965 Francisco and I carried out a two-week dialect survey of the area inwhich San Mateo Ixtatán Chuj was spoken, in the municipios of San Mateo Ixtatán and Nentón,collecting material from 17 aldeas and the town center, a total of 27 questionnaires. Several textswere recorded during this field season, and as usual, the transcribed material was incorporatedinto my lexical files. At the end of this dialect survey Francisco and I collected more plantspecimens (H 0001-0038).The collection of plant names inspired me to collect animal names as well, and to takenotes on their native classification. Absent field work on the project, we consulted referencebooks, including Ibarra's Mamíferos de Guatemala, Alvarez del Toro's Reptiles de Chiapas, andPeterson's Field Guides to the birds. Many of the names had been collected through the MayanVocabulary Survey elicitation or the Monosyllable Dictionary. In the process of recording thisinformation, I began to uncover the Chuj system of gender markers that partitioned the animalsinto coherent classes, and Francisco went through the lexical files and added the gender markersto the slips. The results of this investigation were published in the ill-fated Journal of MayanLinguistics (Hopkins 1980a).In Guatemala City I had acquired the topographical maps for the region ofHuehuetenango (Dirección General de Cartografía, 1963; see Field Notes, 6-12 September,1964) and Francisco and I pored over the maps place by place as I recorded the Chuj names,most of which were garbled in the Spanish versions (the locative yich, 'base of', for instance, wasalmost inevitably transcribed Ix-). I ultimately delivered to the Instituto Nacional de Geografíaand to the Instituto Indigenista Nacional a corrected list, for what that was worth. My analysis ofthe formation of Chuj place names was later publshed (Hopkins 1972), and all the place nameswere added to my lexical files. The Spanish place names reported here are the official names, asregistered in the Diccionario geográfico de Guatemala (Dirección General de Cartografía 1961-62).A graduate student in Geology from LSU was living in Huehuetenango in 1964-65, andhe identified some of the rocks and minerals we had names for. For the results of his study andrelated work in the Cuchumatanes by him and his colleagues, see Blount 1967 and Anderson etal. 1973.In August of 1965, Dennis Breedlove and Brent Berlin came to Guatemala to collectplants and discuss further projects. With Francisco's help, they collected near Antigua and thenagain in the Chuj area, all together another 292 specimens (Br 11397-11689). Brent and I metwith Chris Day, another Chicago graduate student (in the field working on Jacaltec while I wasworking on Chuj, see Day 1973), about a comparative study of numeral classifiers in the threelanguages, Tzeltal, Jacaltec and Chuj. Over the next few years we collaborated in a preliminaryproject, but never brought it to fruition. The plan was for Chris to compile and compare thevocabularies, Brent to write up the semantics (as in his 1964 and 1968 monographs), and for meto analyze the grammars. Only the grammatical analysis reached publication (Hopkins 1970).However, all the information I had generated about the Chuj numeral classifiers went into myslip files.I returned to Chicago in September, 1965, to finish my graduate work and my doctoralivdissertation (Hopkins 1967). I then took a job teaching Anthropology at the University of Texasin Austin, and continued to process my Chuj materials. I married Kathryn Josserand in 1970 andspent a year in Milwaukee, where she had been teaching, and then returned to Texas. In 1973 weleft Texas for Mexico City, at the invitation of Angel Palerm to establish the Programa deLingüística at the new Centro de Investigaciones Superiores del INAH that he directed (nowCIESAS, the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social). Work onChuj was abandoned in favor of field training and research on languages closer to Mexico City,especially Otomanguean languages. A few years later, because we had begun to follow thedevelopments in Maya epigraphy, we began to work on Mayan languages again, but field workwas on Chol, not Chuj.I did not return to work on Chuj until 2005-6, when I received a National Endowment forthe Humanities Documenting Endangered Languages Fellowship. This fellowship allowed me toprepare my Chuj materials for digitization and archiving at the Archive of the IndigenousLanguages of Latin America (AILLA, www.ailla.utexas.org). Now, in 2012, all my recordedmaterials on Chuj are archived. Along with my transcribed Field Notes and field Photos, arevised version of my dissertation, rewritten in modern practical orthography, will complete thiscollection.The collection includes all the recorded and transcribed Chuj texts, some 40 samples ofChuj speech from eight Chuj settlements, some of which no longer exist. More than twenty ofthe settlements reported here as place names were abandoned or destroyed in the genocide of theso-called civil war (Manz 1988:83-89). It is my intention to add to the AILLA archive collectionmuch of my written material as well, including extensive notes made while discussing grammarand lexicon with Francisco Santizo Andrés. All this material is to be freely available to anyoneinterested, and an electronic version of the present Dictionary will be added to the collection.In the Summer of 2011, I dug out of a closet a wooden chest that contained four drawersof lexical slip files, untouched since about 1970. Over the next few months I transcribed thelexical entries into an electronic text file, rewriting the orthography into the now official Chujscript (Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, 1988). I have attempted to make sure that these materialsinclude all the data on plant and animal names, place names, numeral classifiers, etc., that I hadpreviously published.