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Can we emulate nature's technology in chemistry?Through billions of years of evolution, Nature has generated some remarkable systems and substances that have made life on earth what it is today. Increasingly, scientists are seeking to mimic Nature's systems and processes in the lab in order to harness the power of Nature for the benefit of society.Bioinspiration and Biomimicry in Chemistry explores the chemistry of Nature and how we can replicate what Nature does in abiological settings. Specifically, the book focuses on wholly artificial, man-made systems that employ or are inspired by principles of Nature, but which do not use materials of biological origin.Beginning with a general overview of the concept of bioinspiration and biomimicry in chemistry, the book tackles such topics as:Bioinspired molecular machinesBioinspired catalysisBiomimetic amphiphiles and vesiclesBiomimetic principles in macromolecular scienceBiomimetic cavities and bioinspired receptorsBiomimicry in organic synthesisWritten by a team of leading international experts, the contributed chapters collectively lay the groundwork for a new generation of environmentally friendly and sustainable materials, pharmaceuticals, and technologies. Readers will discover the latest advances in our ability to replicate natural systems and materials as well as the many impediments that remain, proving how much we still need to learn about how Nature works.Bioinspiration and Biomimicry in Chemistry is recommended for students and researchers in all realms of chemistry. Addressing how scientists are working to reverse engineer Nature in all areas of chemical research, the book is designed to stimulate new discussion and research in this exciting and promising field. Short descriptionThis book reviews and summarizes the many and varied forms of bioinspiration and biomimicry that are found in chemistry, from the crude to the highly sophisticated, from the near-biological to the totally industrial and abiological. It critically evaluates our true understanding of biological processes and systems by considering our ability to replicate them in non-biological settings. Research chemists will find critical and holistic evaluation of chemical processes in nature.From the contentsForeword xviiJean-Marie LehnForeword xixJanine BenyusPreface xxiiiContributors xxv1. Introduction: The Concept of Biomimicry and Bioinspiration in Chemistry 1Timothy W. Hanks and Gerhard F. Swiegers1.1 What is Biomimicry and Bioinspiration? 11.2 Why Seek Inspiration from, or Replicate Biology? 31.3 Other Monikers: Bioutilization, Bioextraction, Bioderivation, and Bionics 51.4 Biomimicry and Sustainability 51.5 Biomimicry and Nanostructure 71.6 Bioinspiration and Structural Hierarchies 91.7 Bioinspiration and Self-Assembly 111.8 Bioinspiration and Function 121.9 Future Perspectives: Drawing Inspiration from the Complex System that is Nature 132. Bioinspired Self-Assembly I: Self-Assembled Structures 17Leonard F. Lindoy, Christopher Richardson, and Jack K. Clegg2.1 Introduction 172.2 Molecular Clefts, Capsules, and Cages 192.3 Enzyme Mimics and Models: The Example of Carbonic Anhydrase 282.4 Self-Assembled Liposome-Like Systems 302.5 Ion Channel Mimics 322.6 Base-Pairing Structures 342.7 DNA-RNA Structures 362.8 Bioinspired Frameworks 382.9 Conclusion 413. Bioinspired Self-Assembly II: Principles of Cooperativity in Bioinspired Self-Assembling Systems 47Gianfranco Ercolani and Luca Schiaffino3.1 Introduction 473.2 Statistical Factors in Self-Assembly 483.3 Allosteric Cooperativity 503.4 Effective Molarity 523.5 Chelate Cooperativity 553.6 Interannular Cooperativity 603.7 Stability of an Assembly 623.8 Conclusion 674. Bioinspired Molecular Machines 71Christopher R. Benson, Andrew I. Share, and Amar H. Flood4.1 Introduction 714.2 Mechanical Effects in Biological Machines 784.3 Theoretical Considerations: Flashing Ratchets 834.4 Sliding Machines 864.5 Rotary Motors 1024.6 Moving Larger Scale Objects 1044.7 Walking Machines 1064.8 Ingenious Machines 1094.9 Using Synthetic Bioinspired Machines in Biology 1114.10 Perspective 1114.11 Conclusion 1165. Bioinspired Materials Chemistry I: Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites 121Pilar Aranda, Francisco M. Fernandes, Bernd Wicklein, Eduardo Ruiz-Hitzky, Jonathan P. Hill, and Katsuhiko Ariga5.1 Introduction 1215.2 Silicate-Based Bionanocomposites as Bioinspired Systems 1225.3 Bionanocomposite Foams 1245.4 Biomimetic Membranes 1265.5 Hierarchically Layered Composites 1295.6 Conclusion 1336. Bioinspired Materials Chemistry II: Biomineralization as Inspiration for Materials Chemistry 139Fabio Nudelman and Nico A. J. M. Sommerdijk6.1 Inspiration from Nature 1396.2 Learning from Nature 1446.3 Applying Lessons from Nature: Synthesis of Biomimetic and Bioinspired Materials 1466.4 Conclusion 1607. Bioinspired Catalysis 165Gerhard F. Swiegers, Jun Chen, and Pawel Wagner7.1 Introduction 1657.2 A General Description of the Operation of Catalysts 1687.3 A Brief History of Our Understanding of the Operation of Enzymes 1697.4 Representative Studies of Bioinspired/Biomimetic Catalysts 1777.5 The Relationship Between Enzymatic Catalysis and Nonbiological Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis 1927.6 Selected High-Performance NonBiological Catalysts that Exploit Nature's Catalytic Principles 1937.7 Conclusion: The Prospects for Harnessing Nature's Catalytic Principles 2038. Biomimetic Amphiphiles and Vesicles 209Sabine Himmelein and Bart Jan Ravoo8.1 Introduction 2098.2 Synthetic Amphiphiles as Building Blocks for Biomimetic Vesicles 2108.3 Vesicle Fusion Induced by Molecular Recognition 2168.4 Stimuli-Responsive Shape Control of Vesicles 2248.5 Transmembrane Signaling and Chemical Nanoreactors 2318.6 Toward Higher Complexity: Vesicles with Subcompartments 2398.7 Conclusion 2459. Bioinspired Surfaces I: Gecko-Foot Mimetic Adhesion 251Liangti Qu, Yan Li, and Liming Dai9.1 The Hierarchical Structure of Gecko Feet 2519.2 Origin of Adhesion in Gecko Setae 2529.3 Structural Requirements for Synthetic Dry Adhesives 2539.4 Fabrication of Synthetic Dry Adhesives 2549.4.1 Polymer-Based Dry Adhesives 2549.4.2 Carbon-Nanotube-Based Dry Adhesives 2789.5 Outlook 28410. Bioinspired Surfaces II: Bioinspired Photonic Materials 293Cun Zhu and Zhong-Ze Gu10.1 Structural Color in Nature: From Phenomena to Origin 29310.2 Bioinspired Photonic Materials 29610.3 Conclusion and Outlook 31711. Biomimetic Principles in Macromolecular Science 323Wolfgang H. Binder, Marlen Schunack, Florian Herbst, and Bhanuprathap Pulamagatta11.1 Introduction 32311.2 Polymer Synthesis Versus Biopolymer Synthesis 32511.3 Biomimetic Structural Features in Synthetic Polymers 33011.4 Movement in Polymers 34311.5 Antibody-Like Binding and Enzyme-Like Catalysis in Polymeric Networks 35211.6 Self-Healing Polymers 35512. Biomimetic Cavities and Bioinspired Receptors 367Stephane Le Gac, Ivan Jabin, and Olivia Reinaud12.1 Introduction 36712.2 Mimics of the Michaelis-Menten Complexes of Zinc(II) Enzymes with Polyimidazolyl Calixarene-Based Ligands 36812.3 Combining a Hydrophobic Cavity and A Tren-Based Unit: Design of Tunable, Versatile, but Highly Selective Receptors 37712.4 Self-Assembled Cavities 38312.5 Conclusion 39113. Bioinspired Dendritic Light-Harvesting Systems 397Andrea M. Della Pelle and Sankaran Thayumanavan13.1 Introduction 39713.2 Dendrimer Architectures 39913.3 Electronic Processes in Light-Harvesting Dendrimers 40313.4 Light-Harvesting Dendrimers in Clean Energy Technologies 40713.5 Conclusion 41314. Biomimicry in Organic Synthesis 419Reinhard W. Hoffmann14.1 Introduction 41914.2 Biomimetic Synthesis of Natural Products 42014.3 Biomimetic Reactions in Organic Synthesis 43714.4 Biomimetic Considerations as an Aid in Structural Assignment 44714.5 Reflections on Biomimicry in Organic Synthesis 44815. Conclusion and Future Perspectives: Drawing Inspiration from the Complex System that Is Nature 455Clyde W. Cady, David M. Robinson, Paul F. Smith, and Gerhard F. Swiegers15.1 Introduction: Nature as a Complex System 45515.2 Common Features of Complex Systems and the Aims of Systems Chemistry 45715.3 Examples of Research in Systems Chemistry 46015.4 Conclusion: Systems Chemistry may have Implications in Other Fields 468References 470Index 473
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