Summary and Info
EUROPEANIZATION OF THE ROMANIAN SOCIETY AND MASS-MEDIAABSTRACTSConstantin Schifirneţ, Europeanization of the Romanian society and Tendential ModernityThe study explores a topic that has been insufficiently approached in the papers referring to the post communist era, i.e. the research of the Europeanization process of the Romanian society in the context of the interaction between the national society and the EU. It starts from the thesis that the evolution of the Europeanization process in Romania is closely associated with the process of accession to the European Union, finalized after the passing through a sinuous and difficult route. Ever since December 1989, right after the fall of the communist regime, Romania has turned towards the European values and the European integration have stated directly and unconditionally. Afterwards, several programmes and strategies meant to prepare the Romanian society for accessing to the European structures have been adopted successively.It must be said that the enlargement of the European Union materialized in the association of countries with different levels of economic and social development and, therefore, the European Community has taken over all the problems resulting from the disparities between its members. A local problem of the Europeanization has appeared and it is different from the theme of thegeneral Europeanization. The analysis of the Europeanization of the Romanian society pursues the stages of its formation in the local context. The Europeanization process influences directly or indirectly the national societies. The Europeanization cannot be constructed only according to a plan from Brussels, but, also according to the local requirements of each country of the EU.Europeanization of the Romanian society is actually a type of modernization. If this modernization will be made only by the strict application of Community rules, it could generate forms without substance, as the modernization of pre-accession period has generated. By accesion to the European Union, Romania has the chance to end the successive transitions,partial and incomplete, giving rise to tendential modernity.Constantin Schifirneţ, Expectations and requirements to the European UnionThe study presents empirical arguments about the relationship between Europeanization of the Romanian society and the requirements of Romanians about EU. Europeanization strengthens the mechanisms of development and implementation of policies of the European institutions, working to change national institutional framework. Data of Research on a national sample of1119 people distinguishes a group of respondents which have a favorable opinion about the European Union. These are predominantly young, unmarried,college graduates, residing in large cities, high material condition. The sociological survey highlighted the European Union influence on Romanian institutions, but the decisions of the European institutions can produce internal changes only if they are based on Romanians requirements about Europeanization of their society.Ion Stavre, National Public Television and European media systemThis chapter presents the media trusts in Romania after 1989, in connection with the changes that occurred in Europe in the media following the development of digital technology. It argued the need for public television in Romania, due to double public situations: consumer and citizen. Theoretical aspects are also presented concerning the existence or non existence of aEuropean public sphere. Chapter contains the findings of a study based on interviews about the role that it should be public television in the Europeanization of the Romanian society.Valeriu Frunzaru, Mădalina Boţan şi Nicoleta Corbu, European identity and televisionThis chapter addresses the relationship between European identity and television consumption in Romania. Recent approaches on the Romanian historical and cultural background emphasize the dilemma of choosing between organic development and the import of various models without local relevance. Given the theoretical disputes about the existence or nonexistence of a European identity, we chose to measure through a sociological survey the "civic European identity" of Romanians, i.e. the degree of identification with the European Union as a political entity. People who identify with the European Union ("Europeans") are younger, have lower income and higher levels of education, are more likely to have visited other Member State and consider that Romania has benefited from EU membership. Although these individuals have a significantly higher degree of knowledge of the European Union, compared to people who identify solely with Romania, "Europeans" are not concerned about the news or programs that provide information and debateon European issues. We speak of a pragmatic dimension of identification with the European Union. To be "European" also means, to fully benefit from being a citizen of a Member State.Nicoleta Corbu, Valeriu Frunzaru, Mădălina Boţan, Constantin Schifirneţ, Setting the public agenda on the European Union: the 2009 elections for the European Parliament in RomaniaThis chapter deals with the media construction of the Europeanization theme in the Romanian context, starting from the theories related to agenda setting and from the studies conducted in this respect in older EU member states. We set out to find, from content analysis, which are the European themes that are most visible in the electoral debates and in news reports, whichis their share of the whole range of themes under discussion, whether there are differences between newscasts broadcasted by the public television station and those broadcasted by private television stations, and what is the prominence of news reports related to the EU.Mădălina Boţan, Nicoleta Corbu, Valeriu Frunzaru, Televised debates as sources of public agenda-setting In the last decades, debates had become key media events during election campaigns. In this chapter we analyze televised debates during the 2009 Romanian elections for the European Parliament, through content analysis of the debates broadcasted by the public television station. We particularly investigate European dominant themes, visibility of political parties, and gender differences in political communication. Findings show a prominence of topics related to the European Parliament (mainly focused on Romanian voices in the EP), European policies, and structural funds. Political parties are unevenly represented in the debates, and women are clearly underrepresented. Overall, election debates became important voices through which European topics were made visible on the media agenda.Constantin Schifirneţ, Europeanization in online editions of newspapers in a society of tendential modernityArticle examines the presence of themes about European Union in the online editions of newspapers and newspaper „Adevărul” and „Cotidianul”. While important events occurred in European Union during the period studied, the most important news and many articles from these two newspaper have spoken about the arrest of a businessman. Mass media have a paradoxicalattitude towards Europeanization. Journalists discuss about the European Union, but they do not respect the principle of correct information about what is happening in Europe. The analysis of media Europeanization shows that this process is difficult in all EU countries, but especially in former communist countries. The topics about the Europeanization are not present in the mediaagenda.Arthur Suciu, Functional Reversal In EU-Romania Relationship. A Perspective on the European Elections in 2007 and 2009This article presents an analysis of European elections held in Romania in 2007 and 2009, in terms of offer addressed by political parties in election campaigns and programs. I argue that, in addition to the democratic deficit in the relations between the citizens and the European Union (EU), for Romania and probably other countries from former communist camp there is a reversal of functions between national authorities and EU institutions. Since the partiesand the state cannot influence the EU policy to achieve national objectives, citizens expect that EU will influence national policy to achieve these objectives. Unreliable externally and internally, the group of parties uses European elections as mere instruments of the immediate political battle, the European thematic strategy being camouflaged by a multiplication of theelection bid. Thus, the political action on the national and European levels remains suspended.Alexandru I. Cârlan, Legitimating Europe, legitimated by Europe: constructing legitimacy as a double game in the speeches of Romanian candidates for the European ParliamentThe aim of the study is to analyze, starting from Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretisation on the double logic of the political game, how the Romanian candidates for the European Parliament in the 2009 elections constructed legitimacy through their speeches. The study shows how the double game ofpolitics, as accounted by Bourdieu, translates into a double direction in the transfer of legitimacy: politicians not only speak in the name of the group that they represent, but they also bring the group into existence by speaking in its behalf; similarly, they will not only legitimize Europe and its institutions through their speech, but they will also capitalize legitimacy for themselves speaking for Europe, in the name of a fictitious group whose adherence to the European values is from the very beginning assumed. To reach this conclusion,the study proceeds by first highlighting some methodological considerations relevant for analysis, illustrating them through a case study (section 1), then Bourdieu’s perspective on the logic of the political field is presented (section 2), continuing with the presentation of various rhetorical theories able to clarify the concept of “construction of audience” as a rhetorical counterpart of Bourdieu’s insights on the relation between groups and spokespersons (section 3), and with a discussion of the concept of legitimation, mainly within a criticaldiscourse analysis approach (section 4), elaborating thus a theoretical framework for the analysis of the discursive construction and discursive transfers of legitimacy, on a corpus of speeches of some prominent Romanian candidates in the elections for the European Parliament, in June 2009. The conclusion is that Europe is not only a project to be legitimized throughpolitical action, but also a topic able to provide legitimacy to politicians who construct their audience as if an uncritical, submissive consensus to what Europe, European institutions and European values represent would have been granted the status of shared starting point.